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3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine Quickview (CASRN 91-94-1)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

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Status of Data for 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine

File First On-Line: 08/01/1990; Last Significant Revision: 11/01/1991

Category (section)
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment No
Inhalation RfC Assessment Discussion 11/01/1991
Carcinogenicity Assessment Yes 07/01/1993
  • 91-94-1
  • Benzidine, 3,3'-dichloro-
  • (1,1'-Biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine, 3,3'-dichloro-
  • C.I. 23060
  • Curithane C 126
  • 4,4'-Diamino-3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl
  • 3,3'-Dichlorbenzidin [Czech]
  • 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidina [Spanish]
  • 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidin [Czech]
  • Dichlorobenzidine
  • 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
  • more...
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine Source Documents
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals)
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Based on statistically significantly increased tumor incidences in rats, mice and dogs. Additional support is provided by positive evidence of genotoxicity and structural relationship to the known human bladder carcinogen benzidine.
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

Oral Slope Factor(s)
Extrapolation Method
4.5 x10-1 per mg/kg-day Linearized multistage procedure, extra risk
Drinking Water Unit Risks
1.3x10-5 per µg/L
Risk Level
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 8 µg/L
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 8x10-1 µg/L
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 8x10-2 µg/L

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

  • Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.

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