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Chromium(VI) Quickview (CASRN 18540-29-9)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

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Status of Data for Chromium(VI)

File First On-Line: 03/31/1987; Last Significant Revision: 09/03/1998

Category (section)
Status
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment On-line 09/03/1998
Inhalation RfC Assessment On-line 09/03/1998
Carcinogenicity Assessment On-line 09/03/1998
Synonyms
  • 18540-29-9
  • 7440-47-3
  • Chromium
  • Chromium, ion
  • Chromium (VI) ion
  • Chromic ion
  • Chromium (VI)
Chromium(VI) Source Documents
Revision History
Date Section Description
09/03/1998 I., II., VI. Revised RfD, RfC, carcinogenicity assessment, and refs.
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfD
None reported NOAEL (ADJ): 2.5 mg/kg-day 300 3 x10-3 mg/kg-day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfC
Nasal septum atrophy LOAEL (ADJ): 7.14 x10-4 mg/m3 90 8x10-6 mg/m3
(Chromic acid mists and dissolved Cr(VI) aerosols)
Lactate dehydrogenase in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid BMC10 (ADJ): 3.4 x10-2 mg/m3 300 1x10-4 mg/m3
(Cr(VI) particulates)

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Inhalation RfC was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • A (Human carcinogen) (Inhalation route)
    • D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) (Oral route)
    • Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined (Oral route)
    • Known/likely human carcinogen (Inhalation route)
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Under the current guidelines (EPA, 1986), Cr(VI) is classified as Group A - known human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure. Carcinogenicity by the oral route of exposure cannot be determined and is classified as Group D. Under the proposed guidelines (EPA, 1996), Cr(VI) would be characterized as a known human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure on the following basis. The oral carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) cannot be determined. No data were located in the available literature that suggested that Cr(VI) is carcinogenic by the oral route of exposure.
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

  • Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

Inhalation Unit Risk(s)
Extrapolation Method
1.2 x10-2 per µg/m3 Multistage, extra risk

Inhalation Concentrations at Specified Risk Levels

Risk Level
Concentration
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 8x10-3 µg/m3
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 8x10-4 µg/m3
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 8x10-5 µg/m3

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