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Cadmium Quickview (CASRN 7440-43-9)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

Disclaimer: This QuickView represents a snapshot of key information. We suggest that you read the IRIS Summary to put this information into complete context.

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Status of Data for Cadmium

File First On-Line: 03/31/1987; Last Significant Revision: 10/01/1989

Category (section)
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment Yes 10/01/1989
Inhalation RfC Assessment No
Carcinogenicity Assessment Yes 03/31/1987
  • C.I. 77180
  • Cadmium
  • 7440-43-9
  • Kadmium
Cadmium Source Documents
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
Significant proteinuria NOAEL : 5 x10-3 mg/kg-day 10 5 x10-4 mg/kg-day
NOAEL : 1 x10-2 mg/kg-day 10 1 x10-3 mg/kg-day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans)
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Limited evidence from occupational epidemiologic studies of cadmium is consistent across investigators and study populations. There is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in rats and mice by inhalation and intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. Seven studies in rats and mice wherein cadmium salts (acetate, sulfate, chloride) were administered orally have shown no evidence of carcinogenic response.
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

  • Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

Inhalation Unit Risk(s)
Extrapolation Method
1.8 x10-3 per µg/m3 Two stage; only first affected by exposure; extra risk

Inhalation Concentrations at Specified Risk Levels

Risk Level
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 6x10-2 µg/m3
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 6x10-3 µg/m3
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 6x10-4 µg/m3

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