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Benzidine Quickview (CASRN 92-87-5)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

Disclaimer: This QuickView represents a snapshot of key information. We suggest that you read the IRIS Summary to put this information into complete context.

For definitions of terms in the IRIS Web site, refer to the IRIS Glossary.

Status of Data for Benzidine

File First On-Line: 03/31/1987; Last Significant Revision: 07/01/1991

Category (section)
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment Yes 01/01/1989
Inhalation RfC Assessment Message 07/01/1991
Carcinogenicity Assessment Yes 03/31/1987
  • 92-87-5
  • Benzidin
  • Benzidina
  • Benzidine
  • Benzydyna
  • 4,4'-Bianiline
  • p,p'-Bianiline
  • (1,1'-Biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine
  • 4,4'-Biphenyldiamine
  • Biphenyl, 4,4'-diamino-
  • 4,4'-Biphenylenediamine
  • more...
Benzidine Source Documents
Revision History
Date Section Description
04/01/1997 III., IV., V. Drinking Water Health Advisories, EPA Regulatory Actions, and Supplementary Data were removed from IRIS on or before April 1997. IRIS users were directed to the appropriate EPA Program Offices for this information.
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
Brain cell vacuolization; liver cell alterations in females LOAEL : 2.7 mg/kg-day 1000 3 x10-3 mg/kg-day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • A (Human carcinogen)
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Observation of increased incidence of bladder cancer and bladder cancer-related deaths in exposed workers
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

Oral Slope Factor(s)
Extrapolation Method
2.3 x102 per mg/kg-day One-hit with time factor, extra risk
Drinking Water Unit Risks
6.7x10-3 per µg/L
Risk Level
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 2x10-2 µg/L
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 2x10-3 µg/L
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 2x10-4 µg/L

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

Inhalation Unit Risk(s)
Extrapolation Method
6.7 x10-2 per µg/m3 One-hit with time factor, extra risk

Inhalation Concentrations at Specified Risk Levels

Risk Level
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 2x10-3 µg/m3
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 2x10-4 µg/m3
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 2x10-5 µg/m3

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