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Phenol Quickview (CASRN 108-95-2)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

Disclaimer: This QuickView represents a snapshot of key information. We suggest that you read the IRIS Summary to put this information into complete context.

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Status of Data for Phenol

File First On-Line: 01/31/1987; Last Significant Revision: 09/30/2002

Category (section)
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment Yes 09/30/2002
Inhalation RfC Assessment Discussion 09/30/2002
Carcinogenicity Assessment Yes 09/30/2002
  • 108-95-2
  • Benzenol
  • Carbolic acid
  • Hydroxybenzene
  • Izal
  • Monohydroxybenzene
  • Monophenol
  • NCI-C50124
  • Oxybenzene
  • Phenic acid
  • Phenol
  • more...
Phenol Source Documents
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
Decreased maternal weight gain BMDL : 93 mg/kg-day 300 3 x10-1 mg/kg-day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity)
    • Data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Under Draft Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999), the data regarding the carcinogenicity of phenol via the oral, inhalation, and dermal exposure routes are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential. Phenol was negative in oral carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice, but questions remain regarding increased leukemia in male rats in the bioassay as well as the positive gene mutation data and the positive results in dermal initiation/promotion studies at doses at or above the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). No inhalation studies of an appropriate duration exist. Therefore, no quantitative assessment of carcinogenic potential via any route is possible.
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

  • Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

  • Not Assessed under the IRIS Program.

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