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1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) Quickview (CASRN 75-35-4)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

Disclaimer: This QuickView represents a snapshot of key information. We suggest that you read the IRIS Summary to put this information into complete context.

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Status of Data for 1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE)

File First On-Line: 01/30/1987; Last Significant Revision: 08/13/2002

Category (section)
Status
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment On-line 08/13/2002
Inhalation RfC Assessment On-line 08/13/2002
Carcinogenicity Assessment On-line 08/13/2002
Synonyms
  • Vinylidine chloride
  • 75-35-4
  • Chlorure de vinylidene
  • 1,1-DCE
  • 1,1-Dichloroethene
  • Dichloroethene, 1,1-
  • Ethylene, 1,1-dichloro-
  • NCI-C54262
  • RCRA Waste Number U078
  • Sconatex
  • UN 1303
  • more...
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfD
Liver toxicity (fatty change) BMDL10 : 4.6 mg/kg-day 100 5 x10-2 mg/kg-day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
UF RfC
Liver toxicity (fatty change) BMCL10 (HEC): 6.9 mg/m3 30 2x10-1 mg/m3

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Inhalation RfC was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • C (Possible human carcinogen)
    • Suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity, but not sufficient to assess human carcinogenic potential (Inhalation route)
    • Data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential (Oral route)
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Under the 1986 cancer guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1986), 1,1-DCE is assigned to Group C, possible human carcinogen. Under the draft revised guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999), EPA concludes 1,1-DCE exhibits suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity but not sufficient evidence to assess human carcinogenic potential following inhalation exposure in studies in rodents. Male mice developed kidney tumors at one exposure in a lifetime bioassay, a finding tempered by the absence of similar results in female mice or male or female rats and by the enzymatic differences (i.e., CYP2E1) between male mice and female mice, male and female rats, and human kidney cells. Limited evidence of genotoxicity has been reported in bacterial systems with metabolic activation. The data for 1,1-DCE are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential by the oral route, based on the absence of statistically or biologically significant tumors in limited bioassays in rats and mice balanced against the suggestive evidence in male mice in a single bioassay by inhalation and the limited evidence of genotoxicity. The human epidemiological results on the carcinogenicity of 1,1-DCE are too limited to draw useful conclusions. EPA concludes that the results of kidney tumors in one sex and one exposure in a single species of rodents are too limited to support an exposure-response assessment.
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

  • Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

  • Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

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