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Biphenyl Quickview (CASRN 92-52-4)

Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S. EPA health scientists from several Program Offices, Regional Offices, and the Office of Research and Development.

Disclaimer: This QuickView represents a snapshot of key information. We suggest that you read the IRIS Summary to put this information into complete context.

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Status of Data for Biphenyl

File First On-Line: 01/31/1987; Last Significant Revision: 08/27/2013

Category (section)
Last Revised
Oral RfD Assessment Yes 08/27/2013
Inhalation RfC Assessment Discussion 08/27/2013
Carcinogenicity Assessment Yes 08/27/2013
  • 92-52-4
  • Bibenzene
  • Biphenyl
  • Biphenyl, 1,1-
  • Diphenyl
  • Lemonene
  • Phenador-X
  • Phenylbenzene
  • PHPH
  • Xenene
Biphenyl Source Documents
Revision History
Date Section Description
08/27/2013 I., II., VI. RfD and cancer assessment updated, RfC discussion added
Chronic Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

Reference Dose for Chronic Oral Exposure (RfD)

Critical Effect
Point of Departure*
Renal papillary mineralization in male F344 rats BMDL10 (HED): 13.9 mg/kg-day 30 5 x10-1 mg/kg-day

* The Point of Departure listed serves as a basis from which the Oral RfD was derived. See Discussion of Conversion Factors and Assumptions for more details.

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Reference Concentration for Chronic Inhalation Exposure (RfC)

Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

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Carcinogenicity Assessment for Lifetime Exposure
  • Weight-of-Evidence Characterization
    • Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential
  • Weight-of-Evidence Narrative:
    • Under EPA’s Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005a), the database for biphenyl provides “suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential” based on increased incidence of urinary bladder tumors (transitional cell papillomas and carcinomas) in male F344 rats (Umeda et al., 2002) and liver tumors (hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas) in female BDF1 mice (Umeda et al., 2005) exposed to biphenyl in the diet for 104 weeks, as well as information on mode of carcinogenic action. The carcinogenic potential of biphenyl in humans has not been investigated.
    • This may be a synopsis of the full weight-of-evidence narrative. See IRIS Summary.

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Oral Exposure

Oral Slope Factor(s)
Extrapolation Method
8 x10-3 per mg/kg-day Multistage model with linear extrapolation from the POD (LED10).
Drinking Water Unit Risks
2.3x10-7 per µg/L
Risk Level
E-4 (1 in 10,000) 430 µg/L
E-5 (1 in 100,000) 43 µg/L
E-6 (1 in 1,000,000) 4 µg/L

Quantitative Estimate of Carcinogenic Risk from Inhalation Exposure

  • Information reviewed but value not estimated. See IRIS Summary.

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