Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa (Final Report)


EPA announces the release of the final document, Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa, which provides a synthesis of information on the interactive effects of climate change and other stressors on the reefs of American Samoa as well as an assessment of potential management responses. This final document reflects a consideration of all comments received through an external peer review. This is a publication of the Office of Research and Development.


The purpose of this report is to provide the coral reef managers of American Samoa, as well as other coral reef managers in the Pacific region, with some management options to help enhance the capacity of local coral reefs to resist the negative effects of climate change.

Cover of the American Samoa Report document Climate variability and change can negatively impact sensitive coral reef ecosystems by altering sea surface temperatures, ocean chemistry, sea level, storm damage, precipitation patterns, stream flows to the coast, salinity, and pollution loads. This report focuses on the coral reefs of American Samoa as a case study for how managers can approach:
    (1) assessments of reef vulnerabilities to combined climate change and local stresses,
    (2) identification of adaptive management strategies in response, and
    (3) implementation of management options given existing decision processes and mandates.
Large-scale climate stressors are reviewed along with information on localized stressors in American Samoa to assess reef vulnerabilities to climate-related impacts such as coral bleaching. Based on this information, this report presents some adaptive management strategies that could be implemented immediately (e.g., water quality improvements), in the near-term (e.g., enhanced strategic monitoring), and in the long-term (e.g., resilience planning). In each case, management options are considered in a decision making context – i.e., in terms of how such strategies relate to existing plans, processes, and mandates.


This is the final Document.


U.S. EPA. Climate Change and Interacting Stressors: Implications for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa (Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/600/R-07/069.


Sep 2005Review draft completed.
Oct 2005Review comments received.
Dec 2005Second revision completed and comments addressed.
Aug 2006Began final revisions based on internal review.
Jun 2007Completed final revisions based on internal review.
Jul 2007Final report cleared.
Aug 2007Report released.

This download(s) is distributed solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. It has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency determination or policy.