Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Kelp and Copper Sulfate: Initial Investigations of Dioxin Formation in Mineral Feed Supplements
In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and Carbosan Mineral Products provide trace minerals complexed to polysaccharides for delivery of trace minerals. The products were voluntarily recalled by the company until the source of the dioxins could be identified and the dioxins eliminated from the supplements. Preliminary investigations by the company and federal agencies indicated that the dioxins were apparently produced during the manufacturing process of supplements containing copper, zinc, manganese, magnesium and iron. Additional studies were initiated to identify the specific ingredients required for dioxin formation and to provide further insight into the conditions necessary for their production.
Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; Winters, D.; Boone, T.; Vigo, C.; Dupuy, A.; 2003. Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Kelp and Copper Sulfate: Initial Investigations of Dioxin Formation in Mineral Feed Supplements. Organohalogen Compounds 63 (no page numbers).