Updated Mutagencity and Carcinogenicity Assessment of Cadmium: Addendum to the Health Assessment Document for Cadmium (May 1981) EPA-600/8-81-023
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This draft document evaluates the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of cadmium, supplementing an earlier document (Health Assessment Document for Cadmium, May 1981) which dealt with all health effects. Since the earlier document was prepared, a rat inhalation carcinogenicity study has been reported and several epidemiology and mutagenicity papers have been published. This draft document tentatively concludes that: (1) there is evidence suggesting that cadmium and certain cadmium compounds are weakly mutagenic; (2) cadmium chloride aerosol induces lung cancer in rats; (3) injected cadmium salts induce injection site sarcomas and testicular tumors in both mice and rats; (4) there is limited epidemiologic evidence that inhaled cadmium induces prostate and/or lung cancer in highly exposed workers; (5) there is no evidence that cadmium is carcinogenic via ingestion, which is a major route of human exposure, and the upper-limit of potency via ingestion is at least 200 times less than via inhalation.