Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE or DE-79); and pentabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. penta-BDE or DE-71). Before its phase-out, DE-71 was used in polyurethane foams, upholstery, car and airline seats, office and household furniture, carpet pads, mattresses and pillows (Birnbaum and Staskal 2004). DE-71 has also been found to contain low levels of polybrominated dibenzo-dioxins (PBDD) and dibenzofurans (PBDF) (Hanari et al. 2006). Because PBDE mixtures are added rather than chemically bonded to commercial products, PBDE migrate from consumer products into the environment with the potential to produce human harm (Harrad et al. 2010). Such concerns have driven global bans and restrictions on the manufacture and new use of all three PBDE commercial mixtures.