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Environmental Assessment

IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

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Report Information

EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Urea,, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments.

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Norman Birchfield
  • by phone at:   703-347-0174
  • by fax at:   703-347-8699
  • by email at:  birchfield.norman@epa.gov


The draft Toxicological Review of Urea provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to Urea. Urea, also known as carbamide, is an endogenous product of protein and amino acid catabolism. It can also be produced synthetically by combining ammonia, carbon monoxide, and sulfur in methanol. Urea is utilized in diesel selective catalyst reduction, in fertilizers and animal feed, plastics, flame-proofing agents, adhesives, flavoring agents and consumer goods such as liquid soaps, detergents and household cleaning products.


Jun 2010EPA hosted the interagency science consultation on the draft Toxicological Review of Urea.
Sep 2010EPA released the external review draft for public review and comment. EPA also announced a public listening session on Nov 16, 2010. [Federal Register September 28, 2010]
Nov 2010EPA announced the external peer review meeting to be held on December 13, 2010. [Federal Register Nov 10, 2010]
Jan 2011EPA released the comments from the external review workshop.
Jun 2011EPA hosted an interagency science discussion on the review of the draft Toxicological Review of Urea.
Jul 2011EPA released the final toxicological review and IRIS Summary for Urea and the interagency review draft with interagency review comments.

Next Steps

This assessment has been loaded into the IRIS Web site and Database.


U.S. EPA. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Interagency Science Discussion Draft). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/635/R-10/005D, 2011.


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