Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids (Final Report)
EPA is announcing the release of the final report,Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids.
Millions of tons of treated sewage sludges or “biosolids” are applied annually to farms, forests, rangelands, mine lands and other types of land in the United States. Biosolids are defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as “the primarily organic solid product yielded by municipal wastewater treatment processes that can be beneficially recycled” (e.g., as an amendment to soil). Concerns about the potential human health effects from land applied biosolids can be addressed through a risk assessment. This report focuses on the systematic planning step (a “problem formulation,” which defines the major factors to be considered) in risk assessments of pathogens in land applied biosolids. The report follows the common problem formulation steps of hazard identification, conceptual model development and the development of an analysis plan. A study of peer-reviewed literature on pathogens in biosolids (including likely stressors, pathways and health responses of concern; available risk assessment data, tools and methodologies; and gaps in knowledge and research needs) forms the basis of the report. It is intended to assist anyone involved in risk assessments or the management of pathogens in biosolids (e.g., at a local level or on a case-by-case basis) and researchers advancing the science in this topic area.
|Jan 2004||EPA released final Action Plan for setting priorities.|
|Sep 2008||EPA released the external review draft document for public review and comment.|
|Apr 2011||EPA released the final report.|
|May 2011||EPA announced the availability of the final report. [Federal Register May 26, 2011]|
- (168 pp, 1 MB, about PDF)