Chemical and Radiation Leukemogenesis in Humans and Rodents and the Value of Rodent Models for Assessing Risks of Lymphohematopoietic Cancers
This report is intended to provide an up-to-date overview of the lymphoid and hematopoietic diseases induced in humans and rodents following exposure to chemical agents. It includes a brief introduction to hematopoiesis and leukemia-inducing agents and their effects in mice and rats are compared and the value of rodents models. Six different classes of established leukemia-inducing agents were included: in ionizing radiation, alkylatingagents, epipodophyllotoxin-type topoisomerase inhibitors, dioxopiperazine-type topoisomerase inhibitors, benzene, and 1,3 butadiene. The current understanding of mechanisms underlying acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in humans and thymic lymphoma and myeloid leukemia in mice is presented. The relevance of mouse models for human leukemias and lymphomas is discussed. Furthermore, chronic animal bioassys, consideration should be given to processes or mechanisms operating in humans but may be responsible for/or contribute to the incidence of cancer in rodents, a series of recommendations is made for future research in this area.
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