Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Trichloroethylene in the Rat Kidney
The metabolism of trichloroethylene (Tri) by cytochrome P450 (P450) was studied in microsomes from liver and kidney homogenates and from isolated renal proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells from male Fischer 344 rats. Chloral hydrate (CH) was the only metabolite consistently detected and was used as a measurement of P450-dependent metabolism of Tri. Pretreatment of rats with pyridine increased CH formation in both liver and kidney microsomes, whereas pretreatment of rats with clofibrate increased CH formation only in kidney microsomes. Pyridine increased CYP2E1 expression in both liver and kidney microsomes, whereas clofibrate had no effect on hepatic but increased renal CYP2E1 and CYP2C11 protein levels. These results suggest a role for CYP2E1 in both the hepatic and renal metabolism of Tri and a role for CYP2C11 in the renal metabolism of Tri. Studies with the general P450 inhibitor SKF-525A and the CYP2E1competetive substrate chloroxazone provided additional support for the role of CYP2E1 in both tissues. CH formation was higher in PTcells than in DTcells and was time and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) dependent. However, pretreatment of rats with either pyridine or clofibrate had no effect on CYP2E1 or CYP2C11 protein levels or on CH formation is isolated cells. These data show for the first time that Tri can be metabolized to at least one of its P450 metabolites in the kidneys and quantitate the effect of P450 induction on Tri metabolism in the rat kidney.
Keywords:trichloroethylene; kidney; metabolism; cytochrome P450; proximal tubular cells; enzyme induction.