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Name of Article:
A Question of Justice: Equity in Environmental Litigation 
Title of Book/Journal:
Journal of Politics 
Type:
Article 
English Translation:
 
Publication Date:
November 1998     
Author(s):
Ringquist, E.J.
 Editor(s):
 
Volume:
60 
Issue: 4
Pages: 1148 - 1165  
Corporate Author:
 
Publisher:
   
EPA Number:
 
Other Number:
   
Keyword(s):
LAW-FEDERAL
LAW-CASE LAW
LAW-ENFORCEMENT
LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES
MINORITY COMMUNITIES
CLEAN AIR ACT OF 1990 [CAA]
CLEAN WATER ACT OF 1977 [CWA]
CLEAN WATER ACT OF 1977
RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND RECOVERY ACT (RCRA)
Comments:
 
 
 
 
    
 
Annotation:
There are numerous possible causes for inequities in the distribution of pollution, some researchers have identified actions of the federal judiciary as one element contributing to bias in environmental protection Environmental Justice advocates have suggested that penalties for violating environmental regulations are systematically lower in poor and minority areas, signaling that pollution is more acceptable in these areas. Using data from all civil cases under the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act between 1974 and 1991, the author tests the proposition that penalties in these cases disadvantage low income and minority areas. The results from this analysis demonstrate that such penalties are not, in bet, smaller in these areas, suggesting that the judicial contributions to inequities in the distribution of environmental risk are negligible.
 
 
       
 
 
 

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