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Model Report

Swimmer Exposure Assessment Model

Last Revision Date: 08/31/2009 View as PDF
General Information Back to Top
Model Abbreviated Name:

SWIMODEL
Model Extended Name:

Swimmer Exposure Assessment Model
Model Overview/Abstract:
The SWIMODEL is a screening tool for conducting an exposure assessment of pesticides found in indoor swimming pools and spas. The SWIMODEL uses well-accepted screening exposure assessment equations to calculate the total worst-case exposure for swimmers expressed as a mass-based intake value (mg/event). The assessor has the option of using the default values available within the model or entering other available values. The model focuses on potential chemical intakes only and does not take into account for metabolism or excretion of the chemical of concern. SWIMODEL uses the following absorption factors for each route of exposure:
  • Ingestion: 100% absorption of ingested chemical assumed
  • Dermal: Uses a chemical-specific dermal permeability coefficient
  • Inhalation: 100% absorption of inhaled chemical assumed
  • Buccal/Sublingual: 1% absorption generally assumed; may be adjusted
  • Orbital/Nasal: Equivalent to Buccal/Sublingual
  • Aural: Uses a chemical specific dermal permeability coefficient and Kow
The SWIMODEL allows the assessor to estimate exposure for up to six exposure pathways (i.e., oral ingestion, dermal absorption, inhalation, buccal/sublingual, nasal/orbital, and aural pathways)
Keywords: Swimming pools, spa, indoor exposure assessment, dermal , ingestion
Model Technical Contact Information:
Siroos Mostaghimi
USEPA
Office of Pesticide Programs
Antimicrobials Division
Risk and Science Support Branch (RASSB)
Mail code: 7510P
(703)-308-8337
Mostaghimi.Siroos@EPA.Gov
Model Homepage: http://www.epa.gov/oppad001/swimodel.htm

User Information Back to Top
Technical Requirements
Computer Hardware
At least 13 MB of free disk space;
32 MB of RAM;
Windows XP,98, 95, NT or 3.1 operating system;
800 x 600 screen resolution; and
CD-ROM drive.
Compatible Operating Systems
Windows XP, 2000, 98, 95, or NT Operating system and 800x600 screen resolution.
Download Information
This model is available for download at http://www.epa.gov/oppad001/swimodel.htm
Using the Model
Basic Model Inputs
The user may generate exposure estimates for either of the three exposure routes in the “abridged” calculation (i.e., oral, inhalation and dermal) or for six exposure routes in the “full” calculation (i.e., oral, dermal, inhalation, buccal/sublingual, nasal/orbital, and aural routes ). In addition, a user may calculate an exposure estimate based on any single or combination of exposure routes. If the user selects one of the chemicals carried in the SWIMODEL pick-list, only a water concentration value is required to calculate an exposure estimate. SWIMODEL can estimate an air concentration from the water concentration data point using one of two basic methods, Henry’s Law or Raoult’s Law. However, for best results, it is recommended that an empirically derived ambient indoor air data point be obtained.

Should the user define a chemical of concern that is not on the SWIMODEL pick-list, data inputs required are:

  • Concentration of the chemical of concern found in water (Cw)
  • Permeability coefficient of the chemical of concern (Kp)
  • Octanol/water partition coefficient of the chemical of concern (Kow) (required for the aural exposure route).

For inhalation route exposure, required data inputs are:

  • Ambient vapor concentration value that is empirically measured (Cvp)
  • Molecular weight of the chemical of concern (MW)
  • Vapor pressure of the chemical of concern at a relevant temperature (Vp)
  • Solubility of the chemical of concern in water at a relevant temperature (Sol)
  • Henry’s law constant for the chemical of concern (H).
Basic Model Outputs
The Potential Dose Rate (mg/event) for all requested exposure routes along with the normalized PDR (mg/kg/event).
User Support
User's Guide Available?
The User's Guide can be downloaded.

User Qualifications
Basic knowledge of computers and knowledge of exposure risk assessment

Model Science Back to Top
Problem Identification
The Swimmer Exposure Assessment Model was developed by EPA as a screening tool to conduct exposure assessments of pesticides found in indoor swimming pools and spas (these include the 200+ pesticides registered for swimming pool uses, as well as those which exist in water, and run-off water).
Summary of Model Structure and Methods
The SWIMODEL uses well-accepted screening exposure assessment equations to calculate the total worst-case exposure for swimmers expressed as a mass-based intake value (mg/event). The assessor has the option of using the default values available within the model or entering other available values. The model focuses on potential chemical intakes only and does not take into account metabolism or excretion of the chemical of concern. The SWIMODEL is being used for swimmer exposure assessments by EPA, registrants, and in academic circles.

The SWIMODEL Introduction screen - This screen allows the user to select either the full or abridged version of the program.

PERSONAL INFORMATION - In this screen, the assessor can select the age, gender, and competitive level of the swimmer.

PDR RESULTS - displays the Potential Dose Rate (mg/event) for all requested exposure routes along with the normalized PDR (mg/kg/event).

Model Evaluation
No evaluation, Internal Peer reviewed

Key Limitations to Model Scope
The model should not be used for calculating outdoor exposure to chemicals applied to pools and spas.

SWIMODEL focuses on potential chemical intakes only, it does not take into account metabolism or excretion of the chemical of concern.


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